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Species
Agapornis roseicollis - Peach-faced lovebird (2) Alipiopsitta xanthops - Yellow-faced Parrot (1) Alisterus amboinensis - Moluccan King Parrot (1) Alisterus scapularis - Australian King Parrot (3) Amazona aestiva - Blue-fronted Amazon (12) Amazona agilis - Black-billed Parrot (4) Amazona albifrons - White-fronted Amazon (6) Amazona amazonica - Orange-winged Amazon (5) Amazona arausiaca - Red-necked Parrot (1) Amazona auropalliata - Yellow-naped amazon (3) Amazona autumnalis - Red-lored Amazon (8) Amazona barbadensis - Yellow-shouldered amazon (5) Amazona brasiliensis - Red-tailed Amazon (1) Amazona collaria - Yellow-billed Parrot (5) Amazona farinosa - Mealy Amazon (1) Amazona festiva - Festive Parrots (1) Amazona finschi - Lilac crowned Amazon (12) Amazona guildingii - St. Vincent Amazon (7) Amazona imperialis - Imperial Amazon (1) Amazona l. bahamensis - Bahama Parrot (5) Amazona l. caymanensis - Grand Cayman Parrot (5) Amazona l. hesterna - Cayman Brac Parrot (5) Amazona lilacina - Ecuador Amazon (4) Amazona ochrocephala - Yellow-crowned Amazon (3) Amazona oratrix - Yellow-headed Amazon (21) Amazona rhodocorytha - Red-browed Amazon (2) Amazona tucumana - Tucumán Amazon (1) Amazona ventralis - Hispaniola Parrots (2) Amazona versicolor - Saint Lucia Amazon (1) Amazona vinacea - Vinaceous-breasted Amazon (3) Amazona viridigenalis - Red-crowned Amazon (29) Amazona vittata - Puerto Rican Amazon (16) Amazona xantholora - Yellow-lored Amazon (1) Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus - Hyacinth Macaw (5) Anodorhynchus leari - Lear's Macaw (3) Ara ambiguus - Great Green Macaw (8) Ara ararauna - Blue-and-Gold Macaw (30) Ara ararauna - Blue-and-Gold Macaw (12) Ara chloropterus- Green-winged macaw (12) Ara glaucogularis - Blue-throated Macaw (9) Ara macao - Scarlet Macaw (38) Ara militaris - Military Macaw (7) Ara rubrogenys - Red-fronted macaw (1) Aratinga acuticaudata - Blue-crowned Parakeet (4) Aratinga auricapillus - Gold-capped conure (1) Aratinga canicularis - Orange-fronted Parakeet (6) Aratinga erythrogenys - Red-masked Parakeet (14) Aratinga holochlora - Green Parakeet (7) Aratinga jandaya - Jenday conure (3) Aratinga leucophthalma - White-eyed Parakeet (1) Aratinga mitrata -Mitred Parakeet (14) Aratinga nana - Olive-throated Parakeet (1) Aratinga pertinax - Brown-throated Parakeet (1) Aratinga solstitialis - Sun Conure (2) Aratinga strenua - Pacific Parakeet (1) Aratinga wagleri - Scarlet-fronted Parakeet (1) Barnardius zonarius - Australian Ringneck (1) Bolborhynchus lineola - Barred Parakeet (1) Brotogeris chiriri - Yellow-chevroned parakeet (3) Brotogeris jugularis - Orange-chinned Parakeet (2) Brotogeris pyrrhoptera - Grey-cheeked Parakeet (2) Brotogeris versicolurus - White-winged Parakeet (1) Cacatua alba - Umbrella Cockatoo (8) Cacatua ducorpsii - Solomons Cockatoo (1) Cacatua galerita - Sulphur-crested Cockatoo (50) Cacatua goffiniana - Tanimbar Corella (8) Cacatua haematuropygia - Philippine Cockatoo (8) Cacatua leadbeateri - Major Mitchell's Cockatoo (4) Cacatua moluccensis - Salmon-crested Cockatoo (10) Cacatua ophthalmica - Blue-eyed Cockatoo (1) Cacatua p. pastinator - Muir's Corella (6) Cacatua pastinator - Western Corella (5) Cacatua sanguinea - Little Corella (42) Cacatua sulphurea - Lesser Sulphur Crested Cockatoo (12) Cacatua tenuirostris - Long-billed Corella (10) Callocephalon fimbriatum - Gang-gang Cockatoo (10) Calyptorhynchus banksii - Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (53) Calyptorhynchus baudinii - Baudin Cockatoo (37) Calyptorhynchus funereus - Yellow-tailed Black Cockatoo (13) Calyptorhynchus lathami - Glossy Black Cockatoo (18) Calyptorhynchus latirostris - Carnaby's Cockatoo (97) Chalcopsitta cardinalis - Cardinal Lory (1) Charmosyna amabilis - Red-throated Lorikeet (1) Charmosyna diadema - Caledonian lorikeet (1) Charmosyna placentis - Red-flanked lorikeet (1) Conuropsis carolinensis - Carolina Parakeet (5) Coracopsis n. barklyi - Seychelles Black Parrot (2) Cyanoliseus patagonus - Burrowing Parrot (5) Cyanopsitta spixii - Spix's Macaw (10) Cyanoramphus auriceps - Yellow-crowned Kakariki (2) Cyanoramphus cookii - Norfolk Parakeet (1) Cyanoramphus malherbi - Orange-fronted parakeet (12) Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae - Red-crowned Kakariki (16) Cyanoramphus ulietanus - Society parakeet (1) Cyanoramphus unicolor - Antipodes Island Parakeet (3) Cyanoramphus zealandicus - Black-fronted parakeets (1) Deroptyus accipitrinus - Hawk-headed parrot (1) Diopsittaca nobilis - Red-shouldered macaw (1) Eclectus roratus - Eclectus Parrot (10) Enicognathus leptorhynchus - Slender-billed parakeet (1) Eolophus roseicapilla - Galah (19) Eos squamata - Violet-necked Lory (2) Eunymphicus uvaeensis - Ouvea parakeet (1) Forpus coelestis - Pacific Parrotlet (1) Forpus conspicillatus - Spectacled Parrotlet (1) Forpus cyanopygius - Mexican Parrotlet (1) Forpus passerinus - Green-rumped Parrotlet (2) Geoffroyus geoffroyi - Red-cheeked Parrot (1) Glossopsitta porphyrocephala - Purple-crowned Lorikeet (1) Graydidascalus brachyurus - Short-tailed Parrot (1) Guaruba guaruba - Golden conure (3) Hapalopsittaca fuertesi - Fuerte's parrot (2) Lathamus discolor - Swift Parrot (20) Leptosittaca branickii - Golden-plumed Parakeet (2) Loriculus vernalis - Vernal Hanging Parrot (1) Lorius chlorocercus - Yellow-bibbed Lory (1) Lorius domicella - Black-capped Lory (1) Lorius domicella - Purple-naped Lory (2) Lorius garrulus - Chattering Lory (5) Lorius lorry - black-capped Lories (1) Melopsittacus undulatus - Budgerigar (25) Micropsitta keiensis - Yellow-capped pygmy parrot (1) Micropsitta pusio - Buff-faced pygmy parrot (1) Myiopsitta monachus - Monk Parakeet (91) Nandayus nenday - Black-hooded Parakeet (4) Neophema chrysogaster - Orange-bellied Parrot (41) Neophema petrophila - Rock Parrot (1) Neophema pulchella - Turquoise parakeet (2) Nestor chathamensis - Chatham Islands parrot (1) Nestor meridionalis - Kaka (23) Nestor notabilis - Kea (49) Nestor productus - Norfolk Island Kaka (1) Northiella haematogaster - Blue bonnet Parrot (1) Nymphicus hollandicus - Cockatiel (7) Ognorhynchus icterotis - Yellow-eared Parrot (5) Orthopsittaca manilata - Red-bellied macaw (1) Pezoporus flaviventris - Western Ground Parrot (15) Pezoporus occidentalis - Night Parrot (10) Pezoporus wallicus - Eastern ground parrot (2) Pezoporus wallicus - Eastern ground parrot (1) Pionites melanocephalus - Black-headed Caique (1) Pionus menstruus - Blue-headed parrot (2) Pionus senilis - White-crowned Parrot (1) Platycercus elegans - Crimson Rosella (6) Platycercus eximius - Eastern Rosella (4) Poicephalus fuscicollis - Brown-necked Parrot (1) Poicephalus robustus - Cape Parrot (5) Poicephalus senegalus - Senegal Parrot (2) Polytelis alexandrae - Princess Parrot (4) Polytelis anthopeplus - Regent Parrot (8) Polytelis swainsonii- Superb Parrot (14) Primolius auricollis - Yellow-collared macaw (1) Probosciger aterrimus - Palm Cockatoo (4) Psephotus chrysopterygius - Golden-shouldered Parrot (3) Psittacella brehmii - Brehm's Tiger-parrot (1) Psittacula alexandri - Red-breasted Parakeet (1) Psittacula columboides - Malabar Parakeet (1) Psittacula cyanocephala - Plum-headed Parakeet (4) Psittacula derbiana - Derbyan Parakeet (5) Psittacula echo - Mauritius parakeet (3) Psittacula eupatria - Alexandrine Parakeet (18) Psittacula eupatria - Alexandrine Parakeet (4) Psittacula finschii - Grey-headed Parakeet (1) Psittacula himalayana - Slaty-headed Parakeet (1) Psittacula krameri - Ring-necked Parakeet (55) Psittacus erithacus - African Grey Parrot (45) Psittacus erithacus - African Grey Parrot (25) Psittrichas fulgidus - Pesquet's Parrot (1) Pyrrhura albipectus - White-breasted Parakeet (1) Pyrrhura caeruleiceps - Perijá Parakeet (2) Pyrrhura griseipectus - Grey-breasted Parakeet (2) Pyrrhura molinae - Green-cheeked Conure (1) Pyrrhura orcesi - El Oro Parakeet (3) Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha - Thick-billed Parrot (9) Strigops habroptilus - Kakapo (84) Tanygnathus lucionensis - Blue-naped Parrot (4) Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus - Scaly-breasted Lorikeet (1) Trichoglossus rubritorquis - Red-collared Lorikeet (2) Trichoglosus haematodus - Rainbow Lorikeets (16) Vini kuhlii - Kuhl's Lorikeet (1)
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Saturday
Jul282012

Partnering for Parrots

An endangered Puerto Rican parrot. Photo Credit: Pablo Torres, USFWSThe Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vittata) is the last remaining native psittacine in United States territory, and the rarest and most endangered of the 34 species of Amazon parrots. First declared an endangered species in 1967, an intensive and ongoing recovery program for the parrot was initiated in the Luquillo Mountains, also known as the El Yunque National Forest, in 1968. Early recovery efforts focused on acquiring basic natural history data, as well as improving what was quickly discovered to be a very low nesting success rate. Then in 1973, a captive-rearing component was added to the recovery program in an effort to increase overall productivity, provide a safe haven for sick or injured wild parrot nestlings, and provide parrots for release back into wild. This aviary for raising parrots was established at an abandoned military outpost within the El Yunque National Forest.

Service biologist Tom White and Ana Estrella of PRDNER attach a radiotransmitter to a Puerto Rican parrot prior to its release in the Rio Abajo Forest. Photo Credit: Ivan Llerandi, PRDNERThe recovery program for the parrot has been a joint partnership between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the World Wildlife Fund, in conjunction with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources (PRDNER) through an official memorandum of understanding.  The program has also received additional technical and logistic support from several universities, as well as numerous non-government organizations.  Strategic and operational decisions are made by an interagency technical committee with members from each of the three agencies.  Over the years, this three-way partnership has proven to be a highly effective means for promoting species recovery.  Each partner agency provides specific advantages and benefits that further species recovery objectives that neither of the separate partners working alone could achieve. 

As stewards of the El Yunque National Forest – the last stronghold of the wild parrots in Puerto Rico – the USFS is uniquely qualified to provide habitat protection and enhancement for the parrot, including not only the site of the original captive-rearing facility, but also the site of a new state-of-the-art breeding facility constructed within the El Yunque National Forest in 2007, and which is operated by the Service.  USFS employees also work directly with Service field personnel on all aspects of parrot recovery activities, including parrot population counts, artificial nest installations, nest predator and competitor control, and improvements to trails in the parrot nesting area.  The day-to-day direct management actions for the wild parrot population, including nest monitoring, radio telemetry of fledglings and releases of captive-reared birds, are performed primarily by Service field personnel.

Members of the Puerto Rican Parrot Recovery Program during a recent semiannual parrot census in the El Yunque National Forest. Photo Credit: Ivan Llerandi, PRDNERThe PRDNER, with support from the Service, began construction of an additional parrot aviary in 1989, and several Puerto Rican Parrots were transferred there from the aviary in El Yunque in 1993.  Located in the Rio Abajo Commonwealth Forest, the additional aviary is critical to ensuring against loss of the entire captive population from a single catastrophic event, such as a virulent disease outbreak or a major hurricane.  Moreover, the additional and substantial  production of captive-reared parrots in Rio Abajo has been instrumental in making possible not only releases of parrots to augment the relict wild population in El Yunque, but also the successful establishment of a second wild population of parrots within the Rio Abajo Forest in 2006.  In fact, this new and growing population of parrots was established on the actual grounds of the Rio Abajo aviary, and the presence of the aviary captive parrots is believed to have greatly aided in encouraging released parrots to settle and establish a free-flying breeding population near the release site.

Looking to the future, these three longtime partner agencies have also closely collaborated to recently evaluate several potential sites for yet a third wild population of Puerto Rican parrots.  A preferred candidate site has now been identified, and all necessary efforts are now underway to develop a similar reintroduction effort to that which was successfully conducted in Rio Abajo.  And as before, all three agencies – the Service, USFS, and the PRDNER – will each continue to play essential and interrelated roles in this and other future recovery efforts for the Puerto Rican Parrot.

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