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Species
aAmazona autumnalis - Red-lored Amazon (1) Agapornis roseicollis - Peach-faced lovebird (2) Alipiopsitta xanthops - Yellow-faced Parrot (1) Alisterus amboinensis - Moluccan King Parrot (1) Alisterus scapularis - Australian King Parrot (3) Amazona aestiva - Blue-fronted Amazon (12) Amazona agilis - Black-billed Parrot (4) Amazona albifrons - White-fronted Amazon (6) Amazona amazonica - Orange-winged Amazon (5) Amazona arausiaca - Red-necked Parrot (1) Amazona auropalliata - Yellow-naped amazon (3) Amazona autumnalis - Red-lored Amazon (7) Amazona barbadensis - Yellow-shouldered amazon (5) Amazona brasiliensis - Red-tailed Amazon (1) Amazona collaria - Yellow-billed Parrot (5) Amazona farinosa - Mealy Amazon (1) Amazona festiva - Festive Parrots (1) Amazona finschi - Lilac crowned Amazon (11) Amazona guildingii - St. Vincent Amazon (7) Amazona imperialis - Imperial Amazon (1) Amazona l. bahamensis - Bahama Parrot (5) Amazona l. caymanensis - Grand Cayman Parrot (4) Amazona l. hesterna - Cayman Brac Parrot (4) Amazona lilacina - Ecuador Amazon (4) Amazona ochrocephala - Yellow-crowned Amazon (3) Amazona oratrix - Yellow-headed Amazon (21) Amazona rhodocorytha - Red-browed Amazon (2) Amazona tucumana - Tucumán Amazon (1) Amazona ventralis - Hispaniola Parrots (2) Amazona versicolor - Saint Lucia Amazon (1) Amazona vinacea - Vinaceous-breasted Amazon (3) Amazona viridigenalis - Red-crowned Amazon (28) Amazona vittata - Puerto Rican Amazon (16) Amazona xantholora - Yellow-lored Amazon (1) Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus - Hyacinth Macaw (5) Anodorhynchus leari - Lear's Macaw (3) Ara ambiguus - Great Green Macaw (8) Ara ararauna - Blue-and-Gold Macaw (30) Ara ararauna - Blue-and-Gold Macaw (11) Ara chloropterus- Green-winged macaw (11) Ara glaucogularis - Blue-throated Macaw (9) Ara macao - Scarlet Macaw (37) Ara militaris - Military Macaw (7) Ara rubrogenys - Red-fronted macaw (1) Aratinga acuticaudata - Blue-crowned Parakeet (4) Aratinga auricapillus - Gold-capped conure (1) Aratinga canicularis - Orange-fronted Parakeet (6) Aratinga erythrogenys - Red-masked Parakeet (13) Aratinga holochlora - Green Parakeet (7) Aratinga jandaya - Jenday conure (3) Aratinga leucophthalma - White-eyed Parakeet (1) Aratinga mitrata -Mitred Parakeet (12) Aratinga nana - Olive-throated Parakeet (1) Aratinga pertinax - Brown-throated Parakeet (1) Aratinga solstitialis - Sun Conure (2) Aratinga strenua - Pacific Parakeet (1) Aratinga wagleri - Scarlet-fronted Parakeet (1) Barnardius zonarius - Australian Ringneck (1) Bolborhynchus lineola - Barred Parakeet (1) Brotogeris chiriri - Yellow-chevroned parakeet (3) Brotogeris jugularis - Orange-chinned Parakeet (2) Brotogeris pyrrhoptera - Grey-cheeked Parakeet (2) Brotogeris versicolurus - White-winged Parakeet (1) Cacatua alba - Umbrella Cockatoo (8) Cacatua ducorpsii - Solomons Cockatoo (1) Cacatua galerita - Sulphur-crested Cockatoo (48) Cacatua goffiniana - Tanimbar Corella (7) Cacatua haematuropygia - Philippine Cockatoo (8) Cacatua leadbeateri - Major Mitchell's Cockatoo (4) Cacatua moluccensis - Salmon-crested Cockatoo (10) Cacatua ophthalmica - Blue-eyed Cockatoo (1) Cacatua p. pastinator - Muir's Corella (6) Cacatua pastinator - Western Corella (5) Cacatua sanguinea - Little Corella (42) Cacatua sulphurea - Lesser Sulphur Crested Cockatoo (12) Cacatua tenuirostris - Long-billed Corella (10) Callocephalon fimbriatum - Gang-gang Cockatoo (9) Calyptorhynchus banksii - Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (53) Calyptorhynchus baudinii - Baudin Cockatoo (37) Calyptorhynchus funereus - Yellow-tailed Black Cockatoo (13) Calyptorhynchus lathami - Glossy Black Cockatoo (17) Calyptorhynchus latirostris - Carnaby's Cockatoo (94) Chalcopsitta cardinalis - Cardinal Lory (1) Charmosyna amabilis - Red-throated Lorikeet (1) Charmosyna diadema - Caledonian lorikeet (1) Charmosyna placentis - Red-flanked lorikeet (1) Conuropsis carolinensis - Carolina Parakeet (5) Coracopsis n. barklyi - Seychelles Black Parrot (2) Cyanoliseus patagonus - Burrowing Parrot (5) Cyanopsitta spixii - Spix's Macaw (10) Cyanoramphus auriceps - Yellow-crowned Kakariki (2) Cyanoramphus cookii - Norfolk Parakeet (1) Cyanoramphus malherbi - Orange-fronted parakeet (12) Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae - Red-crowned Kakariki (15) Cyanoramphus ulietanus - Society parakeet (1) Cyanoramphus unicolor - Antipodes Island Parakeet (3) Cyanoramphus zealandicus - Black-fronted parakeets (1) Deroptyus accipitrinus - Hawk-headed parrot (1) Diopsittaca nobilis - Red-shouldered macaw (1) Eclectus roratus - Eclectus Parrot (10) Enicognathus leptorhynchus - Slender-billed parakeet (1) Eolophus roseicapilla - Galah (19) Eos squamata - Violet-necked Lory (2) Eunymphicus uvaeensis - Ouvea parakeet (1) Forpus coelestis - Pacific Parrotlet (1) Forpus conspicillatus - Spectacled Parrotlet (1) Forpus cyanopygius - Mexican Parrotlet (1) Forpus passerinus - Green-rumped Parrotlet (2) Geoffroyus geoffroyi - Red-cheeked Parrot (1) Glossopsitta porphyrocephala - Purple-crowned Lorikeet (1) Graydidascalus brachyurus - Short-tailed Parrot (1) Guaruba guaruba - Golden conure (2) Hapalopsittaca fuertesi - Fuerte's parrot (2) Lathamus discolor - Swift Parrot (20) Leptosittaca branickii - Golden-plumed Parakeet (2) Loriculus vernalis - Vernal Hanging Parrot (1) Lorius chlorocercus - Yellow-bibbed Lory (1) Lorius domicella - Black-capped Lory (1) Lorius domicella - Purple-naped Lory (2) Lorius garrulus - Chattering Lory (5) Lorius lorry - black-capped Lories (1) Melopsittacus undulatus - Budgerigar (25) Micropsitta keiensis - Yellow-capped pygmy parrot (1) Micropsitta pusio - Buff-faced pygmy parrot (1) Myiopsitta monachus - Monk Parakeet (87) Nandayus nenday - Black-hooded Parakeet (4) Neophema chrysogaster - Orange-bellied Parrot (39) Neophema petrophila - Rock Parrot (1) Neophema pulchella - Turquoise parakeet (1) Nestor meridionalis - Kaka (23) Nestor notabilis - Kea (44) Nestor productus - Norfolk Island Kaka (1) Northiella haematogaster - Blue bonnet Parrot (1) Nymphicus hollandicus - Cockatiel (7) Ognorhynchus icterotis - Yellow-eared Parrot (5) Orthopsittaca manilata - Red-bellied macaw (1) Pezoporus flaviventris - Western Ground Parrot (13) Pezoporus occidentalis - Night Parrot (10) Pezoporus wallicus - Eastern ground parrot (2) Pezoporus wallicus - Eastern ground parrot (1) Pionites melanocephalus - Black-headed Caique (1) Pionus menstruus - Blue-headed parrot (1) Pionus senilis - White-crowned Parrot (1) Platycercus elegans - Crimson Rosella (6) Platycercus eximius - Eastern Rosella (4) Poicephalus fuscicollis - Brown-necked Parrot (1) Poicephalus robustus - Cape Parrot (5) Poicephalus senegalus - Senegal Parrot (2) Polytelis alexandrae - Princess Parrot (4) Polytelis anthopeplus - Regent Parrot (7) Polytelis swainsonii- Superb Parrot (14) Primolius auricollis - Yellow-collared macaw (1) Probosciger aterrimus - Palm Cockatoo (4) Psephotus chrysopterygius - Golden-shouldered Parrot (3) Psittacella brehmii - Brehm's Tiger-parrot (1) Psittacula alexandri - Red-breasted Parakeet (1) Psittacula columboides - Malabar Parakeet (1) Psittacula cyanocephala - Plum-headed Parakeet (3) Psittacula derbiana - Derbyan Parakeet (5) Psittacula echo - Mauritius parakeet (3) Psittacula eupatria - Alexandrine Parakeet (18) Psittacula eupatria - Alexandrine Parakeet (4) Psittacula finschii - Grey-headed Parakeet (1) Psittacula himalayana - Slaty-headed Parakeet (1) Psittacula krameri - Ring-necked Parakeet (51) Psittacus erithacus - African Grey Parrot (45) Psittacus erithacus - African Grey Parrot (24) Psittrichas fulgidus - Pesquet's Parrot (1) Pyrrhura albipectus - White-breasted Parakeet (1) Pyrrhura caeruleiceps - Perijá Parakeet (2) Pyrrhura griseipectus - Grey-breasted Parakeet (2) Pyrrhura molinae - Green-cheeked Conure (1) Pyrrhura orcesi - El Oro Parakeet (3) Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha - Thick-billed Parrot (9) Strigops habroptilus - Kakapo (83) Tanygnathus lucionensis - Blue-naped Parrot (4) Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus - Scaly-breasted Lorikeet (1) Trichoglossus rubritorquis - Red-collared Lorikeet (2) Trichoglosus haematodus - Rainbow Lorikeets (15) Vini kuhlii - Kuhl's Lorikeet (1)
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Tuesday
Aug282012

A talkative bird gone without a word

Mark Catesby's illustration of the parakeet. It's from Catesby's Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands, which was published in several editions in the mid 1700s. Courtesy of Wilson LibraryThe Carolina parakeet, a small, gregarious parrot with a vibrant green, yellow and blood-orange plumage, once flitted and chattered widely through the state’s forests and lowland swamps.

Then about a century ago, it vanished, leaving an old-fashioned mystery for modern ornithologists.

But the Carolina Parakeet has appeared again this summer — in prints, photographs and paintings — on display in the North Carolina Collection Gallery at Wilson Library on the UNC-Chapel Hill campus through Sept. 30.

On Wednesday, Aug. 29, at 5:15 p.m., there will be a viewing of the exhibit and a talk 30 minutes later by two ornithology experts from the N.C. Museum of Natural Sciences — John Gerwin, the curator of ornithology, and Brian O’Shea, the collections manager for ornithology.

John James Audubon's illustration of the North Carolina Parakeet. Courtesy of Wilson LibraryNo one knows for sure what happened to America’s lost parrot.

Milliners hunted them for their fashionable feathers.

Trappers caught the verbose birds to sell as caged pets.

Farmers shot the parakeet flocks as menaces to their corn crops and fruit orchards.

And European honeybees, which traveled in swarms and built elaborate nests in the same hollow trees where the birds roosted, brought new competition in a habitat that extended south to the Gulf of Mexico, east to the Ohio Valley and as far north as New York and Wisconsin.

Though no one knows the exact date the bird became extinct, the last reported killing of the wild specimen was in 1904 in Okeechobee County in south-central Florida.

In 1917 and 1918, the last two known Carolina parakeets died in captivity in the Cincinnati Zoo. The pair, named Lady Jane and Incas, lived together for 32 years. Lady Jane died in 1917, and Incas, her mate, went within a year on Feb. 21, 1918. Their demise coincided with the extinction of another iconic bird, the North American passenger pigeon. The last of the breed, a captive bird named Martha, died in 1914, also at the Cincinnati Zoo.

Ornithologists are fascinated by the parakeet, also known as the Carolina Parrot, for more than its mysterious disappearance. They are curious about its adaptation to colder climes atypical of the rain forests and tropical climates where most parakeet species thrive today.

The ornithologists and scientists interested in the extinct bird pore over journals from 18th- and 19th-century explorers who documented their findings and sightings. They turn to the colorful and detailed illustrations of John James Audubon, the 19th-century naturalist and painter whose color-plate book, “The Birds of America” offers a vivid picture of bygone eras.

One rare 1906 photo of Paul Bartsch, a Smithsonian scientist, offers a true-to-form, grainy, black-and-white image of Doodles, his pet Carolina Parakeet, perched on his tie knot.

Hundreds of skins and 16 skeletons are housed in museums around the world. Egg specimens collected and sold to museums when the parakeet was becoming an endangered species offer a wealth of molecular study materials.

Audobon noted in one of his journals that cats died from eating Carolina Parakeets, leaving some to wonder whether the bird, which ate the toxic seeds of cockleburs, might have been poisonous.

The bird lived in forests along rivers and flocked to swampland cypresses, using large, hollow trees as roosting and nesting sites.

In the 1800s, they became a popular target for hunters, according to documentarians, because their colorful feathers were in high demand as accessories for ladies’ hats.

Though some of the parakeets, or small parrots, were shot for food, farmers began shooting them in great numbers because they would flock together in cornfields, orchards and garden flocks and devastate their cash crops.

The birds, Gerwin said, had a bad habit that made them easy marks and almost certainly led to their quicker demise.

“The poor bird had a bad behavioral trait,” Gerwin said. “They were very social, and when one was shot they would fly away and then return immediately to where the injured or killed bird was.”

Another threat to the species, Gerwin speculated, was the growth boom of the 1800s that led to massive deforestation.

“We think it’s a problem now,” Gerwin said, “but it was even worse in the 1800s.”

People continue to hold out hope that not only will the mystery of the parakeet’s extinction be solved, but that it might also be proved untrue by the discovery of Carolina Parakeets in some forest faraway.


Read more here: http://www.newsobserver.com/2012/08/27/2299018/a-talkative-bird-gone-without.html#storylink=cpy
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