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Species
Agapornis lilianae - Lilian's lovebird (1) Agapornis roseicollis - Peach-faced lovebird (2) Alipiopsitta xanthops - Yellow-faced Parrot (1) Alisterus amboinensis - Moluccan King Parrot (1) Alisterus scapularis - Australian King Parrot (4) Amazona aestiva - Blue-fronted Amazon (12) Amazona agilis - Black-billed Parrot (5) Amazona albifrons - White-fronted Amazon (6) Amazona amazonica - Orange-winged Amazon (5) Amazona arausiaca - Red-necked Parrot (1) Amazona auropalliata - Yellow-naped amazon (3) Amazona autumnalis - Red-lored Amazon (8) Amazona barbadensis - Yellow-shouldered amazon (5) Amazona brasiliensis - Red-tailed Amazon (1) Amazona collaria - Yellow-billed Parrot (6) Amazona farinosa - Mealy Amazon (2) Amazona festiva - Festive Parrots (1) Amazona finschi - Lilac crowned Amazon (13) Amazona guildingii - St. Vincent Amazon (7) Amazona imperialis - Imperial Amazon (1) Amazona l. bahamensis - Bahama Parrot (5) Amazona l. caymanensis - Grand Cayman Parrot (5) Amazona l. hesterna - Cayman Brac Parrot (5) Amazona lilacina - Ecuador Amazon (4) Amazona ochrocephala - Yellow-crowned Amazon (3) Amazona oratrix - Yellow-headed Amazon (21) Amazona rhodocorytha - Red-browed Amazon (2) Amazona tucumana - Tucumán Amazon (2) Amazona ventralis - Hispaniola Parrots (3) Amazona versicolor - Saint Lucia Amazon (1) Amazona vinacea - Vinaceous-breasted Amazon (3) Amazona viridigenalis - Red-crowned Amazon (31) Amazona vittata - Puerto Rican Amazon (18) Amazona xantholora - Yellow-lored Amazon (1) Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus - Hyacinth Macaw (5) Anodorhynchus leari - Lear's Macaw (3) Ara ambiguus - Great Green Macaw (8) Ara ararauna - Blue-and-Gold Macaw (30) Ara ararauna - Blue-and-Gold Macaw (12) Ara chloropterus- Green-winged macaw (12) Ara glaucogularis - Blue-throated Macaw (9) Ara macao - Scarlet Macaw (40) Ara militaris - Military Macaw (7) Ara rubrogenys - Red-fronted macaw (1) Aratinga acuticaudata - Blue-crowned Parakeet (4) Aratinga auricapillus - Gold-capped conure (1) Aratinga canicularis - Orange-fronted Parakeet (7) Aratinga erythrogenys - Red-masked Parakeet (15) Aratinga holochlora - Green Parakeet (7) Aratinga jandaya - Jenday conure (3) Aratinga leucophthalma - White-eyed Parakeet (1) Aratinga mitrata -Mitred Parakeet (14) Aratinga nana - Olive-throated Parakeet (2) Aratinga pertinax - Brown-throated Parakeet (1) Aratinga solstitialis - Sun Conure (2) Aratinga strenua - Pacific Parakeet (1) Aratinga wagleri - Scarlet-fronted Parakeet (1) Barnardius zonarius - Australian Ringneck (1) Bolborhynchus lineola - Barred Parakeet (1) Brotogeris chiriri - Yellow-chevroned parakeet (3) Brotogeris jugularis - Orange-chinned Parakeet (2) Brotogeris pyrrhoptera - Grey-cheeked Parakeet (2) Brotogeris versicolurus - White-winged Parakeet (1) Cacatua alba - Umbrella Cockatoo (8) Cacatua ducorpsii - Solomons Cockatoo (1) Cacatua galerita - Sulphur-crested Cockatoo (50) Cacatua goffiniana - Tanimbar Corella (8) Cacatua haematuropygia - Philippine Cockatoo (8) Cacatua leadbeateri - Major Mitchell's Cockatoo (4) Cacatua moluccensis - 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Yellow-crowned Kakariki (4) Cyanoramphus cookii - Norfolk Parakeet (2) Cyanoramphus malherbi - Orange-fronted parakeet (13) Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae - Red-crowned Kakariki (17) Cyanoramphus ulietanus - Society parakeet (1) Cyanoramphus unicolor - Antipodes Island Parakeet (3) Cyanoramphus zealandicus - Black-fronted parakeets (1) Deroptyus accipitrinus - Hawk-headed parrot (1) Diopsittaca nobilis - Red-shouldered macaw (1) Eclectus roratus - Eclectus Parrot (10) Enicognathus leptorhynchus - Slender-billed parakeet (1) Eolophus roseicapilla - Galah (20) Eos squamata - Violet-necked Lory (2) Eunymphicus uvaeensis - Ouvea parakeet (1) Forpus coelestis - Pacific Parrotlet (1) Forpus conspicillatus - Spectacled Parrotlet (1) Forpus cyanopygius - Mexican Parrotlet (1) Forpus passerinus - Green-rumped Parrotlet (2) Geoffroyus geoffroyi - Red-cheeked Parrot (1) Glossopsitta porphyrocephala - Purple-crowned Lorikeet (1) Graydidascalus brachyurus - Short-tailed Parrot (1) Guaruba guaruba - Golden conure (3) Hapalopsittaca fuertesi - Fuerte's parrot (2) Lathamus discolor - Swift Parrot (26) Leptosittaca branickii - Golden-plumed Parakeet (2) Lophopsittacus mauritianus - Raven parrot (1) Loriculus vernalis - Vernal Hanging Parrot (1) Lorius chlorocercus - Yellow-bibbed Lory (1) Lorius domicella - Black-capped Lory (1) Lorius domicella - Purple-naped Lory (2) Lorius garrulus - Chattering Lory (5) Lorius lorry - black-capped Lories (1) Melopsittacus undulatus - Budgerigar (25) Micropsitta keiensis - Yellow-capped pygmy parrot (1) Micropsitta pusio - Buff-faced pygmy parrot (1) Mopsitta tanta - Danish Blue Parrot (1) Myiopsitta monachus - Monk Parakeet (95) Nandayus nenday - Black-hooded Parakeet (4) Neophema chrysogaster - Orange-bellied Parrot (49) Neophema petrophila - Rock Parrot (1) Neophema pulchella - Turquoise parakeet (2) Nestor chathamensis - Chatham Islands parrot (1) Nestor meridionalis - Kaka (28) Nestor notabilis - Kea (51) Nestor productus - Norfolk Island Kaka (1) nNeophema chrysogaster - Orange-bellied Parrot (2) Northiella haematogaster - 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Mulga parrot (1) Psittacara chloroptera - Hispaniolan parakeet (1) Psittacella brehmii - Brehm's Tiger-parrot (1) Psittacula alexandri - Red-breasted Parakeet (1) Psittacula columboides - Malabar Parakeet (1) Psittacula cyanocephala - Plum-headed Parakeet (5) Psittacula derbiana - Derbyan Parakeet (5) Psittacula echo - Mauritius parakeet (3) Psittacula eupatria - Alexandrine Parakeet (18) Psittacula eupatria - Alexandrine Parakeet (5) Psittacula finschii - Grey-headed Parakeet (1) Psittacula himalayana - Slaty-headed Parakeet (1) Psittacula krameri - Ring-necked Parakeet (62) Psittacus erithacus - African Grey Parrot (45) Psittacus erithacus - African Grey Parrot (27) Psittrichas fulgidus - Pesquet's Parrot (1) Pyrrhura albipectus - White-breasted Parakeet (1) Pyrrhura caeruleiceps - Perijá Parakeet (2) Pyrrhura griseipectus - Grey-breasted Parakeet (2) Pyrrhura molinae - Green-cheeked Conure (1) Pyrrhura orcesi - El Oro Parakeet (3) Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha - Thick-billed Parrot (9) Strigops habroptilus - Kakapo (88) Tanygnathus lucionensis - Blue-naped Parrot (4) Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus - Scaly-breasted Lorikeet (1) Trichoglossus rubritorquis - Red-collared Lorikeet (2) Trichoglosus haematodus - Rainbow Lorikeets (18) Vini kuhlii - Kuhl's Lorikeet (1)
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Saturday
Mar092013

Parrots population declining fast in Sindh and Punjab: survey

The Plum-headed parakeets is one of the species under pressure. Image by Michael and Helen CoxKARACHI, March 9: Illegal hunting, trapping and export of parrots on a mass scale have brought about a sharp decline in its population in Sindh and Punjab, a survey shows.

The survey titled Status and Distribution of Parakeets in Punjab and Sindh Provinces of Pakistan was conducted by the Zoological Survey Department in collaboration with the wildlife departments of the two provinces and financed by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF).

The survey covered 23 districts of Sindh and Punjab in 2011 and focused on two parrot species — rose-ringed and Alexandrine.

Its findings have recently been published in Guardians of the Indus: Conserving the Ecosystem, the WWF 2012 report.

The survey was conducted following concerns were expressed by certain quarters that the National Council for Conservation of Nature (NCCW) had imposed a ban on parrots exports (in 2008) without determining the population of the species. Before the ban, the yearly quota permitted by the NCCW to export these birds stood at 25,000.

The survey showed that all the four species of parakeets — rose-ringed parakeet, Alexandrine or large Indian parakeet, blossom-headed parakeet and slaty-headed parakeet— were observed in Punjab. The single district where all the four species were observed was Rawalpindi.

The slaty-headed and plume-headed parakeets were observed in good numbers in the Murree Biodiversity Park near Chitta Morr Murree (Rawalpindi district). The three species of parakeets — the rose-ringed, slaty-headed and plume-headed — were observed in a single habitat in Islamabad.

The habitat consisted of mixed trees of kikar, berry, sheesham and fruit trees of chikoo, guava, date palm and mango.

Whereas only the rose-ringed parakeets were seen in selected districts of Sindh, the highest population density of rose-ringed parakeet was observed in Mirpurkhas district.

The total population of the two species was estimated at 58,818 in the two provinces.

An approximate population density of 55,127 rose-ringed parakeets was observed in 13 selected districts of Punjab and only 18,688 (rose-ringed) parakeets were observed in the 15 selected districts of Sindh.

The highest number of rose-ringed parakeets was observed in Faisalabad district, that is, 1,390 birds with approximate population of 10,435 birds throughout the district. In Punjab, the Alexandrine parakeet was observed with an approximate population of 3,961 birds and the highest number of the parakeet was observed in Kasur district with an approximate population of 2,631 birds.

Citing a survey conducted in 1991 by T.J. Roberts, the survey says that Mr Roberts had also recorded Alexandrine Parakeet in Sindh in districts of Ghotki and Sukkur near Punjab, but the species was not observed during the current study in both districts.

“If we compare our results with that of Mr Roberts, the parakeets, especially rose-ringed parakeets in different parts of the country, a significant decrease can be noted in Sindh and Punjab. This decrease can be attributed to different factors like hunting, loss of habitat and export,” the survey says.

Referring to the information gathered from local hunters, common people and market surveys, the survey says that thousands of parakeets are annually captured and exported. A visit to the Empress Market in Karachi, one of the largest bird selling markets in the country, revealed that parakeet catch has decreased over the last decade.

“A decade ago 50,000 to 70,000 parakeets were annually brought for sale from different parts of the country and now only 10,000 to 14,000 birds reach here. During the current survey the annual catch of parakeets especially of rose-ringed was recorded 200 to 3,000 birds and each hunter traps 30 to 200 birds throughout the year in each district of Punjab.

“In Sindh 30 to 300 birds are captured per hunter and 250 to 2,000 birds are captured from each district throughout the year,” the survey says.

According to the report, people who are involved in hunting are mostly professionals but some agriculture labourers are also involved in parakeet part-time hunting.
The rose-ringed parakeet was the most captured species in both provinces. These birds are locally sold to middleman or in local markets.

The adult rose-ringed is sold for Rs100 to Rs540 whereas an adult Alexandrine parakeet for Rs2,000 to Rs5,000. It was found that chicks of both the species were highly priced than that of adults due to their quick learning ability. The chick of Alexandrine parakeet fetches as much as Rs6,000 and the chick of rose-ringed is sold at between Rs500 to Rs1,000.

The report points out that habitat loss is one of the most threatening factors responsible for the decline in parakeet population.

Almost all the four species of parakeets make their nest or occupy the nest of other bird species in old tree holes.

Deforestation is rampant throughout the country and mostly old trees are ruthlessly cut down for wood, timber and other purposes, thus reducing roosting and nesting sites of parakeets.The report recommends a countrywide census on parakeets, besides strict enforcement of wildlife laws and the NCCW ban on exports in order to conserve the remaining parrot population.

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